Defect induced room temperature ferromagnetism in single crystal, poly-crystal, and nanorod ZnO: A comparative study

B. Ghosh, Sekhar C. Ray, Mbule Pontsho, Sweety Sarma, Dilip K. Mishra, Y. F. Wang, W. F. Pong, André M. Strydom

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34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A comparative study has been made for the defect induced room temperature ferromagnetism of single crystal, poly-crystal, and nanorod zinc oxide (ZnO), based on the magnetic properties and electronic properties by means of X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), valence band photoemission spectroscopy (VB-PES), and SQUID-type magnetometry. Magnetic measurement demonstrates the defect-induced ferromagnetic nature at room temperature in different ZnO films and a strong correlation between their electronic properties and magnetic responses. The higher ferromagnetic behaviour in polycrystalline ZnO is attributed to the increasing number of surface defects and native defect sites (oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials) present in ZnO. XANES studies reveal that the number of unoccupied p states in polycrystalline ZnO is higher than single crystal ZnO as well as nanorod ZnO. The more amount of oxygen vacancy causes the highest intensity the O 1 s peak to appear in the XANES spectra of polycrystalline ZnO. In polycrystalline ZnO, the binding energy of the Zn 2p3/2 core level peak shifted to lower energy that further confirms the increase of the valence band maximum (VBM) position. The VBM of single crystal, poly-crystal, and nanorod-ZnO is 3.64 eV, 3.99 eV, and 3.71 eV, respectively, obtained from UPS (He-I) measurements. VB-PES studies confirm that the number of electrons in the valence band of O 2p - Zn 4sp hybridized states of poly-crystal ZnO is higher than single crystal and nanorod-ZnO.

Original languageEnglish
Article number161507
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Volume123
Issue number16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Apr 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy

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