Culture and educational administration: A case of finding out what you don’t know you don’t know

Philip Hallinger, Kenneth Leithwood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

168 Citations (Scopus)


Outlines the rationale for exploring the role of culture in the practice of educational administration. Examines how culture fits into a broad theoretical framework for studying administrative behaviour in education. In doing so, distinguishes between the use of the societal culture construct as an exogenous and an endogenous variable. Argues that there is much conceptual leverage to be gained from employing culture as a variable in such a theoretical framework. Suggests a revisiting of the framework for studying educational administration developed by Getzels et al. almost 30 years ago. Finally, looks at the transmission of a knowledge base through training. Explores the implications that a cultural perspective has on the interpretation and use of knowledge as well as on its communication through preparation programmes. Contends that the cultural lens illuminates the limitations of the current knowledge base and supports the importance of this line of research in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)98-116
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Educational Administration
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 1996
Externally publishedYes


  • Leadership
  • Management
  • National cultures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Public Administration


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