Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating at Penhill Farm: An Earlier Stone Age Acheulean locality in the lower Sundays River Valley, South Africa

Matt G. Lotter, Kathleen Kuman, Darryl E. Granger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Penhill Farm is an Earlier Stone Age (ESA) Acheulean archaeological site located within the southeastern Cape coastal region of South Africa. Although ESA artifacts have been known for this region since the 1950s, limited archaeological work and an inability to date the terrace context sites have prevented understanding the technological progression from the ESA to Middle Stone Age (MSA) and their placement within the Stone Age chronology of South Africa. Here we use cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be to reveal a two-stage depositional history for a stone tool assemblage recovered from a debris flow deposit, with artifacts dating to ca. 1.1 Ma (million years) incorporated into a debris flow dating to ca. 0.6 Ma, thereby constraining the Penhill Farm Acheulean occupation to the Early Pleistocene.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101431
JournalQuaternary Geochronology
Volume75
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023

Keywords

  • Acheulean techno-complex
  • Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating
  • Debris flow
  • Fluvial terraces
  • Lithic assemblage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology
  • Stratigraphy
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)

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