Contaminations of soil and two capsicum annuum generations irrigated by reused urban wastewater treated by different reed beds

Suhad A.A.A.N. Almuktar, Suhail N. Abed, Miklas Scholz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: In order to save potable water, this study aims to evaluate the contamination of soil and Capsicum annuum L. (chilli) watered with urban wastewater (sewage) pre-treated by various wetland systems. Methods: The appropriateness of wetland outflow for irrigation when applying reused wastewater with high contamination of minerals and pathogens was assessed. The impact of wastewaters pre-treated by various wetlands on soil and harvest was tested in terms of mineral and biological contamination risk. Results: The wetlands met the standards for irrigation water for most water quality variables. However, the thresholds for key water quality parameters were significantly (p < 0.05) exceeded. The highest values for total coliforms, ammonium-nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were 157,072 CFU/100 mL, 8.5 mg/L, 5.0 mg/L, and 7.0 mg/L, respectively. The harvest was moderately polluted only by zinc according to vegetable quality standards (threshold of 50 mg/kg). Zinc concentrations for Filters 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were 35.8, 60.6, 65.1, 65.5 and 53.2 mg/kg, respectively. No bacterial contamination was detected. Conclusions: Treatment of domestic wastewater applying constructed wetlands and subsequent recycling of the treated wastewater for irrigation of crops is a good substitute to the traditional application of drinking water for irrigation purposes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1776
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 18 Aug 2018


  • Constructed wetland
  • Cultivar
  • Ecological engineering
  • Irrigation water quality
  • Sewage treatment
  • Sustainable development
  • Zinc

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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