Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Gender Invariance of the Revised IRMA Scale in Nigeria

Sunday B. Fakunmoju, Tina Abrefa-Gyan, Ntandoyenkosi Maphosa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Research scales developed in one society are often validated in another society to determine the factor structure and measurement equivalence of the scales. Using a convenience sample of 378 respondents from two cross-sectional studies, the present analyses examined confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and gender invariance in the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance (IRMA) Scale in Nigeria. Specifically, the analyses examined whether the scale holds similar factor structure, whether the latent means can be compared, and whether respondents interpreted items similarly or ascribed the same meaning to them across gender. Based on the analyses, CFA results validated the hypothesized multidimensional four-factor structure of IRMA, namely, “she asked for it,” “he didn’t mean to,” “it wasn’t really rape,” and “she lied.” Similarly, the IRMA measurement was invariant (partial scalar invariance) across gender, suggesting that men and women interpreted IRMA’s items and constructs similarly. Results of an independent-samples t test suggested that women were more likely than men to reject the myth that female victim of rape “lied.” In general, preliminary findings indicated that IRMA is suitable for research on rape myths in Nigeria. Knowledge generated from its use may enhance understanding of rape myths, rape-supportive behaviors, and rape prevention and victim intervention programs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-98
Number of pages16
JournalAffilia - Journal of Women and Social Work
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019


  • confirmatory factor analysis
  • gender invariance
  • Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale
  • rape
  • rape myth
  • sexual violence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gender Studies
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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