Challenges in employing complex e-learning strategies in campus-based universities

Carmel McNaught, Paul Lam, Kin Fai Cheng, David M. Kennedy, Joseph Bernard Mohan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Despite the existence of a significant number of established interactive e-learning tools and strategies, the overall adoption of e-learning is not high in many universities. It is thus important for us to identify and understand the challenges that face more complex e-learning projects. Using a qualitative method that gathered together the reflections of experienced practitioners in the field, this paper outlines many types of challenges that arise in the planning and development, implementation and evaluation stages of e-learning projects. Some of these challenges are related to human factors and some are associated with external factors such as technological infrastructure, university policy and support and the teaching and learning culture as a whole. A number of models are presented to assist our understanding of this situation - one on understanding the nature of innovation, a grounded model of the challenge factors we have encountered in our own experience and one to show possible future directions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)266-285
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Campus-based universities
  • Challenges
  • Complexity
  • Culture
  • Development
  • E-learning
  • Evaluation
  • Implementation
  • Infrastructure
  • Innovation
  • Multiple models
  • Planning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Computer Science Applications


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