Carbohydrate biopolymers, lignin based adsorbents for removal of heavy metals (Cd2+, Pb2+, Zn2+) from wastewater, regeneration and reuse for spent adsorbents including latent fingerprint detection: A review

B. G. Fouda-Mbanga, E. Prabakaran, K. Pillay

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

78 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Living organisms are created by carbohydrate biopolymers such as chitosan, carboxymethyl cellulose, alginate and lignin. These carbohydrate biopolymers have been extensively used for environmental applications because they are bio-degradable, bio-compatible, non-toxic and inexpensive. Recently, carbohydrate biopolymers have been used to prepare different nanocomposite adsorbents for treatment of wastewater. These adsorbents explored the removal effectiveness of inorganic pollutants from aqueous solution. This review article discusses the synthesis and application of chitosan, carboxymethyl cellulose, alginate and lignin nanocomposites as adsorbents for heavy metals. Toxic metals can be efficiently absorbed by cross-linkers, distributed in aqueous solutions of divalent heavy metal ions to examine their polymer absorption capacity. These nanocomposites were used for the adsorption of highly toxic metals such as Cd2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ in water. To make heavy metal ion uptake more effective, more functionalization has been implemented such as blending, grafting, or mixing with different nanomaterials with an extra functional group. The integration of the second part into the main polymer chain not only adds functionality but also increases mechanical efficiency, one of the core criteria for adsorbent recyclability. The remediation method of metal ions from wastewater is cheaper as long as the adsorbent is reused. Furthermore, they exhibited good performance for the reuse of spent adsorbents after adsorption-desorption processes including latent fingerprint detection with nanomaterials by using the powder dusting method. Chitosan, carboxymethyl cellulose, alginate and lignin based nanocomposites have demonstrated better adsorption activities due to great physical and chemical properties for the chelation of heavy metals such as Cd2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ from water and also higher regeneration with various eluents after several desorption-adsorption cycles. In addition, reuse of the spent adsorbents in latent fingerprint detection with different nanomaterials is discussed. Finally, this review article makes recommendations for future studies in light of environmentally favourable and economical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere00609
JournalBiotechnology Reports
Volume30
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021

Keywords

  • Adsorbents
  • Carbohydrate biopolymers
  • Heavy metals pollutants
  • Lignin
  • Regeneration
  • Reuse and latent fingerprint detection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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