Burnout and Work Engagement: The JDR Approach

Arnold B. Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti, Ana Isabel Sanz-Vergel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1331 Citations (Scopus)


Whereas burnout refers to a state of exhaustion and cynicism toward work, engagement is defined as a positive motivational state of vigor, dedication, and absorption. In this article, we discuss the main definitions and conceptualizations of both concepts used in the literature. In addition, we review the most important antecedents of burnout and work engagement by examining situational and individual predictors. We also review the possible consequences of burnout and engagement and integrate the research findings using job demandsresources theory. Although both burnout and work engagement are related to important job-related outcomes, burnout seems to be more strongly related to health outcomes, whereas work engagement is more strongly related to motivational outcomes. We discuss daily and momentary fluctuations in burnout and work engagement as possibilities for future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)389-411
Number of pages23
JournalAnnual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Employee engagement
  • Job demandsresources model
  • Job design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Applied Psychology
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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