Blockchain Implementation Barriers in Maritime: A Case Study based on ISM and MICMAC Techniques

Sanja Bauk, Lindani Handsome Ntshangase

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This article considers blockchain implementation and adoption in maritime sector, including its benefits and challenges. In addition to a review of existing literature sources in this domain, through a case study the impediments of deploying blockchain in a developing maritime environment are examined. The analysis are based on the Interpretative Structural Modeling (ISM) and Cross-Impact Matrix Multiplication Applied Classification (MICMAC) methods. In this context, it is to be pointed out that the constraints in blockchain mainstream adoption in maritime are explored in several comprehensive academic papers so far. The same applies for ISM and MICMAC approaches. Therefore, in the focus of this work is a case study conducted among the specialists in maritime industry, business and higher education in South Africa as an emerging maritime ecosystem. The subjectivity inherent to the applied methodology is highlighted, since different specialist can differently evaluate pairwise relationships among the considered constraints.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-80
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Maritime Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 30 Dec 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • assessment
  • barriers
  • blockchain
  • ISM
  • maritime

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cultural Studies
  • History
  • Ocean Engineering


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