Biological therapy with complementary and alternative medicine in innocuous integrative oncology: A case of cervical cancer

Elvin Peter Chizenga, Heidi Abrahamse

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Good medicine is based on good science, inquiry driven and open to new paradigms. For a complex disease such as cancer, a complex treatment regime that is well structured and multifactorial is indispensable. In the present day, Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapies are being used frequently for cancer, alongside modern biological therapies and allopathic medicine, in what is called integrative oncology. In all conscience, the use of natural, less invasive interventions whenever possible is ideal. However, a comprehensive understanding of not only the etiopathology of individual cancers, but also the detailed genetic and epigenetic characteristics, the cancer hallmarks, that clearly show the blueprint of the cancer phenotype is a requisite. Different tumors have a common behavioral pattern, but their specific features at the genetic and epigenetic levels vary to a great extent. Henceforth, with so many failed attempts to therapy, drug formulations and combinations need a focused pre-assessment of the inherent features of individual cancers to destroy the tumors holistically by targeting these features. This review therefore presents innocuous therapeutic regimes by means of CAM and integrative medicine approaches that can specifically target the hallmarks of cancer, using the case of cervical cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Article number626
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • Biological therapy
  • Cancer hallmarks
  • Cervical cancer
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Integrative medicine
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Oncoproteins
  • Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Biological therapy with complementary and alternative medicine in innocuous integrative oncology: A case of cervical cancer'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this