Beyond the Demand-Control Model: Thriving on High Job Demands and Resources

Arnold B. Bakker, Marc van Veldhoven, Despoina Xanthopoulou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

390 Citations (Scopus)


This study among 12,359 employees working in 148 organizations tested the interaction hypothesis of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. Accordingly, employees endorse most positive work attitudes (task enjoyment and organizational commitment) when job demands and job resources are both high. Results of moderated structural equation modeling analyses provided strong support for the hypothesis: 15 of the 16 hypothesized interactions were significant for task enjoyment and 13 of the 16 interactions were significant for organizational commitment. Job resources (skill utilization, learning opportunities, autonomy, colleague support, leader support, performance feedback, participation in decision making, and career opportunities) predicted task enjoyment and organizational commitment particularly under conditions of high job demands (workload and emotional demands). These findings clearly expand the Demand-Control model and support the JD-R model. Moreover, the results illustrate what managers can do to secure employee well-being.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-16
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Personnel Psychology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Demand-Control model
  • Job Demands-Resources model
  • Organizational commitment
  • Task enjoyment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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