Beyond Constant Comparison Qualitative Data Analysis: Using NVivo

Nancy L. Leech, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

279 Citations (Scopus)


The purposes of this paper are to outline seven types of qualitative data analysis techniques, to present step-by-step guidance for conducting these analyses via a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software program (i.e., NVivo9), and to present screenshots of the data analysis process. Specifically, the following seven analyses are presented: constant comparison analysis, classical content analysis, keyword-in-context, word count, domain analysis, taxonomic analysis, and componential analysis. It is our hope that providing a clear step-by-step process for conducting these analyses with NVivo9 will assist school psychology researchers in increasing the rigor of their qualitative data analysis procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)70-84
Number of pages15
JournalSchool Psychology Quarterly
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software
  • NVivo
  • Qualitative data analysis
  • Qualitative research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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