Avenanthramides, Distinctive Hydroxycinnamoyl Conjugates of Oat, Avena sativa L. An Update on the Biosynthesis, Chemistry, and Bioactivities

Chanel J. Pretorius, Ian A. Dubery

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Avenanthramides are a group of N-cinnamoylanthranilic acids (phenolic alkaloid compounds) that are produced in oat plants as phytoalexins, in response to pathogen attack and elicitation. The enzyme catalysing the cinnamamide-generating reaction is hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: hydroxyanthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HHT, a member of the super family of BAHD acyltransferases). HHT from oat appears to have a narrow range of substrate usage, with preferred use of 5-hydroxyanthranilic acid (and to a lesser extent, other hydroxylated and methoxylated derivatives) as acceptor molecules, but is able to use both substituted cinnamoyl-CoA and avenalumoyl-CoA thioesters as donor molecules. Avenanthramides thus combine carbon skeletons from both the stress-inducible shikimic acid and phenylpropanoid pathways. These features contribute to the chemical characteristics of avenanthramides as multifunctional plant defence compounds, as antimicrobial agents and anti-oxidants. Although avenanthramides are naturally and uniquely synthesised in oat plants, these molecules also exhibit medicinal and pharmaceutical uses important for human health, prompting research into utilisation of biotechnology to enhance agriculture and value-added production.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1388
JournalPlants
Volume12
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023

Keywords

  • N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase
  • alkaloid
  • avenanthramide
  • biomarkers
  • conjugates
  • hydroxyanthranilic acid
  • hydroxycinnamic acid
  • metabolomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology
  • Plant Science

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