Assessment of Urban Green Space Dynamics Influencing the Surface Urban Heat Stress Using Advanced Geospatial Techniques

Bijay Halder, Jatisankar Bandyopadhyay, Aqeel Ali Al-Hilali, Ali M. Ahmed, Mayadah W. Falah, Salwan Ali Abed, Khaldoon T. Falih, Khaled Mohamed Khedher, Miklas Scholz, Zaher Mundher Yaseen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Urban areas are mostly heterogeneous due to settlements and vegetation including forests, water bodies and many other land use and land cover (LULC) classes. Due to the overwhelming population pressure, urbanization, industrial works and transportation systems, urban areas have been suffering from a deficiency of green spaces, which leads to an increase in the variation of temperature in urban areas. This study investigates the conceptual framework design towards urban green space (UGS) and thermal variability over Kolkata and Howrah city using advanced remote sensing (RS) and geospatial methods. The low green space is located in the highly built-up area, which is influenced by thermal variations. Therefore, the heat stress index showed a high area located within the central, north, northwestern and some parts of the southern areas. The vegetated areas decreased by 8.62% during the ten years studied and the other land uses increased by 11.23%. The relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) showed significant changes with R2 values between 0.48 (2010) and 0.23 (2020), respectively. The correlation among the LST and the normalized difference built-up index (NDBI) showed a notable level of change with R2 values between 0.38 (2010) and 0.61 (2020), respectively. The results are expected to contribute significantly towards urban development and planning, policymaking and support for key stakeholders responsible for the sustainable urban planning procedures and processes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2129
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • geospatial indicators
  • heat stress
  • twin city of West Bengal
  • urban climate
  • urban green space (UGS)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science


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