Assessing critical risk factors (CRFs) to sustainable housing: The perspective of a sub-Saharan African country

Michael Atafo Adabre, Albert P.C. Chan, David J. Edwards, Emmanuel Adinyira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Ensuring safe, affordable and energy efficient housing facilities to members of the general public by 2030 are prominent objectives delineated within the United Nation's (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, attaining these goals has been negatively influenced by various risk factors. This study explores linear relationships among clusters of these risk factors and the sustainable development goals in the Ghanaian housing market. Specifically, 21 risk factors, established through a comprehensive literature review, were categorized into four main clusters/constructs, namely: 1) political and procurement risks; 2) financial-related risks; 3) design and construction risks and 4) operation and maintenance risks. A questionnaire survey was conducted with respondents mostly in the formal/regulated/controlled sector of the Ghanaian housing market. Partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) on the data revealed causal relationships among constructs of risks that could influence the SDGs. Results revealed that only ‘political and procurement risks’ have a significant impact (t-value of 2.321) on the SDGs. Besides, this risk category has significant impacts on all the other risk categories with the highest impact (t-value of 4.538) on ‘design and construction risks’. The study contributes to the scientific literature by providing a novel investigation of the influence of risk constructs on the SDGs in housing. The study's findings may be used to influence research informed local policymakers and supranational organizations who seek to develop interventions/policies for reducing the housing crisis in most cities in Ghana and other sub-Saharan African countries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102385
JournalJournal of Building Engineering
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Affordability
  • Affordable housing
  • Critical risks
  • Ghana
  • Risks
  • Sustainable housing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Architecture
  • Building and Construction
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Mechanics of Materials


Dive into the research topics of 'Assessing critical risk factors (CRFs) to sustainable housing: The perspective of a sub-Saharan African country'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this