Architecture and performance of the KM3NeT front-end firmware

Sebastiano Aiello, Arnauld Albert, Sergio Alves Garre, Zineb Aly, Fabrizio Ameli, Michel Andre, Giorgos Androulakis, Marco Anghinolfi, Mancia Anguita, Gisela Anton, Miquel Ardid, Julien Aublin, Christos Bagatelas, Giancarlo Barbarino, Bruny Baret, Suzan Basegmez Du Pree, Anastasios Belias, Meriem Bendahman, Edward Berbee, Ad M. Van Den BergVincent Bertin, Vincent Van Beveren, Simone Biagi, Andrea Biagioni, Matthias Bissinger, Markus Boettcher, Jihad Boumaaza, Mohammed Bouta, Mieke Bouwhuis, Cristiano Bozza, Horea Brânzaş, Ronald Bruijn, Jurgen Brunner, Ernst Jan Buis, Raffaele Buompane, Jose Busto, Barbara Caiffi, David Calvo, Antonio Capone, Victor Carretero, Paolo Castaldi, Silvia Celli, Mohamed Chabab, Nhan Chau, Andrew Chen, Silvio Cherubini, Vitaliano Chiarella, Tommaso Chiarusi, Marco Circella, Rosanna Cocimano, Joao A.B. Coelho, Alexis Coleiro, Marta Colomer Molla, Stephane Colonges, Rosa Coniglione, Imanol Corredoira, Paschal Coyle, Alexandre Creusot, Giacomo Cuttone, Antonio D. Amico, Antonio D'Onofrio, Richard Dallier, Mauro De Palma, Irene Di Palma, Antonio F. Díaz, Dídac Diego-Tortosa, Carla Distefano, Alba Domi, Roberto Donà, Corinne Donzaud, Damien Dornic, Manuel Doerr, Doriane Drouhin, Thomas Eberl, Ahmed Eddyamoui, Thijs Van Eeden, Daan Van Eijk, Imad El Bojaddaini, Dominik Elsaesser, Alexander Enzenhoefer, Victor Espinosa Rosell, Paolo Fermani, Giovanna Ferrara, Miroslav D. Filipović, Francesco Filippini, Luigi Antonio Fusco, Omar Gabella, Tamas Gal, Alfonso Andres Garcia Soto, Fabio Garufi, Yoann Gatelet, Nicole Geißelbrecht, Lucio Gialanella, Emidio Giorgio, Sara R. Gozzini, Rodrigo Gracia, Kay Graf, Dario Grasso, Giuseppe Grella, Daniel Guderian, Carlo Guidi, Steffen Hallmann, Hassane Hamdaoui, Hans Van Haren, Aart Heijboer, Amar Hekalo, Juan Jose Hernández-Rey, Jannik Hofestädt, Feifei Huang, Walid Idrissi Ibnsalih, Alin Ilioni, Giulia Illuminati, Clancy W. James, Peter Jansweijer, Maarten De Jong, Paul De Jong, Bouke Jisse Jung, Matthias Kadler, Piotr Kalaczyński, Oleg Kalekin, Uli F. Katz, Nafis Rezwan Khan Chowdhury, Giorgi Kistauri, Frits Van Der Knaap, Els N. Koffeman, Paul Kooijman, Antoine Kouchner, Michael Kreter, Vladimir Kulikovskiy, Robert Lahmann, Giuseppina Larosa, Remy Le Breton, Ornella Leonardi, Francesco Leone, Emanuele Leonora, Jean Lesrel, Giuseppe Levi, Massimiliano Lincetto, Miles Lindsey Clark, Thomas Lipreau, Alessandro Lonardo, Fabio Longhitano, Daniel Lopez-Coto, Lukas Maderer, Jerzy Mikolaj Mańczak, Karl Mannheim, Annarita Margiotta, Antonio Marinelli, Christos Markou, Lilian Martin, Juan Antonio Martínez-Mora, Agnese Martini, Fabio Marzaioli, Stefano Mastroianni, Safaa Mazzou, Karel W. Melis, Gennaro Miele, Pasquale Migliozzi, Emilio Migneco, Piotr Mijakowski, Luis Salvador Miranda Palacios, Carlos Maximiliano Mollo, Mauro Morganti, Michael Moser, Abdelilah Moussa, Rasa Muller, David Muñoz Pérez, Paolo Musico, Mario Musumeci, Lodewijk Nauta, Sergio Navas, Carlo A. Nicolau, Brian Fearraigh, Mitchell O'Sullivan, Mukharbek Organokov, Angelo Orlando, Juan Palacios González, Gogita Papalashvili, Riccardo Papaleo, Cosimo Pastore, Alice M. Pǎun, Gabriela Emilia Pǎvǎlaş, Giuliano Pellegrini, Carmelo Pellegrino, Mathieu Perrin-Terrin, Paolo Piattelli, Camiel Pieterse, Konstantinos Pikounis, Ofelia Pisanti, Chiara Poirè, Vlad Popa, Thierry Pradier, Gerd Pühlhofer, Sara Pulvirenti, Omphile Rabyang, Fabrizio Raffaelli, Nunzio Randazzo, Soebur Razzaque, Diego Real, Stefan Reck, Giorgio Riccobene, Marc Richer, Stephane Rivoire, Alberto Rovelli, Francisco Salesa Greus, Dorothea Franziska Elisabeth Samtleben, Agustin Sánchez Losa, Matteo Sanguineti, Andrea E. Santangelo, Domenico Santonocito, Piera Sapienza, Jan Willem Schmelling, Jutta Schnabel, Johannes Schumann, Jordan Seneca, Irene Sgura, Rezo Shanidze, Ankur Sharma, Francesco Simeone, Anna Sinopoulou, Bernardino Spisso, Maurizio Spurio, Dimitris Stavropoulos, Jos Steijger, Simona Maria Stellacci, Mauro Taiuti, Yahya Tayalati, Enrique Tenllado, Tarak Thakore, Steven Tingay, Ekaterini Tzamariudaki, Dimitrios Tzanetatos, Veronique Van Elewyck, Georges Vasileiadis, Federico Versari, Salvo Viola, Daniele Vivolo, Gwenhael De Wasseige, Joern Wilms, Rafa Wojaczyński, Els De Wolf, Dmitry Zaborov, Sandra Zavatarelli, Angela Zegarelli, Daniele Zito, Juan De Dios Zornoza, Juan Zúñiga, Natalia Zywucka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The KM3NeT infrastructure consists of two deep-sea neutrino telescopes being deployed in the Mediterranean Sea. The telescopes will detect extraterrestrial and atmospheric neutrinos by means of the incident photons induced by the passage of relativistic charged particles through the seawater as a consequence of a neutrino interaction. The telescopes are configured in a three-dimensional grid of digital optical modules, each hosting 31 photomultipliers. The photomultiplier signals produced by the incident Cherenkov photons are converted into digital information consisting of the integrated pulse duration and the time at which it surpasses a chosen threshold. The digitization is done by means of time to digital converters (TDCs) embedded in the field programmable gate array of the central logic board. Subsequently, a state machine formats the acquired data for its transmission to shore. We present the architecture and performance of the front-end firmware consisting of the TDCs and the state machine.

Original languageEnglish
Article number016001
JournalJournal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021

Keywords

  • KM3NeT
  • acquisition firmware
  • neutrino telescope
  • time to digital converters

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Instrumentation
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Space and Planetary Science

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