Application of plant growth regulators modulates the profile of chlorogenic acids in cultured bidens pilosa cells

Anza Tshilidzi Ramabulana, Paul A. Steenkamp, Ntakadzeni E. Madala, Ian A. Dubery

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Plant cell culture offers an alternative to whole plants for the production of biologically important specialised metabolites. In cultured plant cells, manipulation by auxin and cytokinin plant growth regulators (PGRs) may lead to in vitro organogenesis and metabolome changes. In this study, six different combination ratios of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and benzylaminopurine (BAP) were investigated with the aim to induce indirect organogenesis from Bidens pilosa callus and to investigate the associated induced changes in the metabolomes of these calli. Phenotypic appearance of the calli and total phenolic contents of hydromethanolic extracts indicated underlying biochemical differences that were investigated using untargeted metabolomics, based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC– qTOF–MS), combined with multivariate data analysis. The concentration and combination ratios of PGRs were shown to induce differential metabolic responses and, thus, distinct metabolomic profiles, dominated by chlorogenic acids consisting of caffeoyl-and feruloyl-derivatives of quinic acid. Although organogenesis was not achieved, the results demonstrate that exogenous application PGRs can be used to manipulate the metabolome of B. pilosa for in vitro production of specialised metabolites with purported pharmacological properties.

Original languageEnglish
Article number437
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Auxin
  • Bidens pilosa
  • Callus
  • Chlorogenic acids
  • Cytokinin
  • Organogenesis
  • Phenolics
  • Secondary metabolites

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology
  • Plant Science


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