Application of ionic liquids for extraction of phenolic compounds and dyes: A critical review

Nomvano Mketo, Philiswa N. Nomngongo

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Environmental pollution is a one of the most popular and challenging dilemma that faces science community today. Natural weathering and industrialization sectors such as textile, printing, iron-steel, petroleum, pesticides, paper, pharmaceuticals, and painting, to name the few are the main sources of dye and phenolic compound pollutants. The widely investigated sample preparation methods for dyes and phenolic compounds are liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), liquid–liquid microextraction (LLME), solid phase extraction (SPE), and solid phase microextraction (SPME). However, to minimize the use of organic solvents and to achieve Green Chemistry Principles in the above listed sample preparation methods, ionic liquids have been extensively investigated. Therefore, the current evaluates various sample preparation methods that have been developed for the extraction of dyes and phenolic compounds in various matrixes. The published literature reports show that, imidazolium-based ionic liquids are the mostly investigated solvents in LLE, SPE, and in biphasic extraction (BPE) of phenols and dyes. Additionally, it was observed that dyes preferred SPE prior to spectrophotometric determination, while phenolic compounds were mostly determined by using LLE followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. However, the variation in miscibility of ionic liquids makes the sample preparation technology in analytical chemistry to have a wider development. Therefore, more innovative developments using ionic liquids are highly expected for the determination of phenols and dyes in various matrices.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGreen Sustainable Process for Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Science
Subtitle of host publicationGreen Solvents and Extraction Technology
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9780323951562
ISBN (Print)9780323951579
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023


  • Adsorbent
  • Adsorption
  • Biodegradation
  • Biphasic systems
  • Capillary electrophoresis
  • Degradation
  • Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction
  • Dyes
  • Green chemistry
  • High performance liquid chromatography
  • Ionic liquids
  • Ionic liquid–liquid extraction, Ionic liquid–solid phase extraction
  • Liquid–liquid extraction
  • Magnetic ionic liquids
  • Phenolic compounds
  • Polymeric ionic liquids
  • Removal
  • Soil
  • Solid phase extraction
  • Ultraviolet
  • Water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics (all)


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