Application of Attainable Region Technique to Optimize Copper Slag’s Desired Size Class

Tlotlo Solomon Gabasiane, Gwiranai Danha, Tirivaviri Mamvura, Tebogo Mashifana, Vusumuzi Sibanda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Copper slag is a hard material produced from smelting copper-bearing ores. Over the years, research has prioritized utilizing slag as a secondary source of base metals. This paper focuses on the grinding/milling of copper slag collected from the BCL Mine in Botswana to obtain a maximum amount of material in the desired size class with minimal energy consumption. This will then be followed by an integrated flotation and leaching approach of the desired size class material to recover copper. Our objectives are to determine the grinding time, ball loading, mill filling and desired size class for maximum recovery of copper mineral. The attainable region technique is an equipment-independent optimization tool employed here to determine the optimal specifications of our experimentally manipulated variables to satisfy the set objective function.

Original languageEnglish
Article number19
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • attainable region theory
  • ball loading
  • desired size class
  • energy efficiency
  • grinding times

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Geology


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