Antitumor effect of Iso-mukaadial acetate on MCF-7 breast cancer mice xenograft model

P. P. Raphela-Choma, R. Lukhwareni, M. B.C. Simelane, L. R. Motadi, M. S. Choene

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Antitumor drugs used today have shown significant efficacy and are derived from natural products such as plants. Iso-mukaadial acetate (IMA) has previously been shown to possess anticancer properties by inducing apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of IMA in the breast cancer xenograft mice model. Female athymic nude mice were used and inoculated with breast cancer cells subcutaneously. Untreated group one served as a negative control and positive control group two (cisplatin) was administered intravenously. IMA was administered orally to group three (100 mg/kg) and group four (300 mg/kg). Blood was collected (70 μL) from the tail vein on day zero, day one and day three. Tumor regression was measured every second day and body mass was recorded each day. Estimation of serum parameters for renal indices was examined using a creatinine assay. Histopathological analysis was conducted to evaluate morphological changes of liver, kidney, and spleen tissues before and after compound administration under a fluorescence light microscope. Histopathological analysis of tumors was conducted before and after compound administration. Apoptotic analysis using the TUNEL system was conducted on liver, kidney, and spleen tissues. Tumor shrinkage and reduction in body mass were observed after treatment with IMA. Serum creatinine was slightly elevated after treatment with IMA at a dosage of 100 and 300 mg/kg. Histopathological results of the liver exhibited no changes before and after IMA while the kidney and spleen tissues showed changes in the cellular structure. IMA showed no cytotoxic effect on the tumor cells, and cell proliferation was observed. Apoptotic assay stain with TUNEL showed apoptotic cells in spleen tissue and kidney but no apoptotic cells were observed in liver tissue section treated with IMA. IMA showed clinical toxic signs that resulted in the suffering and death of the mice immediately after IMA administration. Histopathology of tumor cells showed that IMA did not inhibit cell proliferation and no cellular damage was observed. Therefore, based on the results obtained, we cannot make any definitive conclusion on the complete effect of IMA in vivo. IMA is toxic, poorly soluble, and not safe to use in animal studies. The objective of the study was not achieved, and the hypothesis was rejected.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13744
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2024


  • Antitumor
  • Apoptosis
  • Athymic-nude mice
  • Breast cancer
  • Iso-mukaadial acetate
  • MCF-7

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Multidisciplinary


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