Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for oral Candida infection in adult AIDS patients: A pilot clinical trial

Meixia Du, Weijun Xuan, Xiumei Zhen, Lixia He, Lina Lan, Shanlin Yang, Nianning Wu, Jinmei Qin, Rui zhao, Jianglong Qin, Jian Lan, Huan Lu, Cuijin Liang, Yanjun Li, Michael R Hamblin, Liyi Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) using methylene blue (MB) plus potassium iodide (KI) has been shown to be effective in killing Candida albicans in many in vitro and in vivo studies, however, there are limited reports of clinical investigations. This study aimed to explore the clinical application of aPDT with MB plus KI for the treatment of oral infection caused by C. albicans in adult acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Methods: A total of 21 adult AIDS patients with C. albicans oral candidiasis were divided into two groups according to MB concentration and received two consecutive aPDT treatments. Immediately before and after the aPDT treatments, C. albicans yeast isolates were recovered to measure the colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL), biofilm formation, and to analyze the 25S rDNA genotype. Patients were assessed for the clinical recovery of oral lesions and improvement of symptoms. Results: The Log10 CFU/mL of C. albicans decreased significantly after the second aPDT but not the first aPDT. There was no significant difference between the two MB concentrations. Both aPDT protocols decreased the oral lesions and clinical symptoms with no significant difference after 2-fraction aPDT. The biofilm formation of C. albicans isolates did not change before and after aPDT. The killing efficiency of 2-fraction-aPDT was not associated with either biofilm formation or 25S rDNA genotype. Conclusions: Two-fraction-aPDT with MB plus KI could reduce the number of viable C. albicans fungal cells and improve the clinical symptoms of oral candidiasis in adult AIDS patients, regardless of the biofilm formation or 25S rDNA genotype of infected C. albicans isolates.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102310
JournalPhotodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • AIDS
  • Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy
  • Candida albicans
  • Clinical trial
  • Methylene blue
  • Oral candidiasis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Oncology
  • Dermatology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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