An Overview of Emerging Cyanide Bioremediation Methods

Narges Malmir, Najaf Allahyari Fard, Saeed Aminzadeh, Zahra Moghaddassi-Jahromi, Lukhanyo Mekuto

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Cyanide compounds are hazardous compounds which are extremely toxic to living organisms, especially free cyanide in the form of hydrogen cyanide gas (HCN) and cyanide ion (CN). These cyanide compounds are metabolic inhibitors since they can tightly bind to the metals of metalloenzymes. Anthropogenic sources contribute significantly to CN contamination in the environment, more specifically to surface and underground waters. The treatment processes, such as chemical and physical treatment processes, have been implemented. However, these processes have drawbacks since they generate additional contaminants which further exacerbates the environmental pollution. The biological treatment techniques are mostly overlooked as an alternative to the conventional physical and chemical methods. However, the recent research has focused substantially on this method, with different reactor configurations that were proposed. However, minimal attention was given to the emerging technologies that sought to accelerate the treatment with a subsequent resource recovery from the process. Hence, this review focuses on the recent emerging tools that can be used to accelerate cyanide biodegradation. These tools include, amongst others, electro-bioremediation, anaerobic biodegradation and the use of microbial fuel cell technology. These processes were demonstrated to have the possibility of producing value-added products, such as biogas, co-factors of neurotransmitters and electricity from the treatment process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1724
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • anaerobic biodegradation
  • cyanide
  • electro-bioremediation
  • microbial fuel cell technology
  • omics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


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