An exfoliated graphite-based electrochemical immunosensor on a dendrimer/carbon nanodot platform for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen cancer biomarker

Azeez O. Idris, Nonhlangabezo Mabuba, Omotayo A. Arotiba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An electrochemical immunosensor for the quantification of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) using a nanocomposite of polypropylene imine dendrimer (PPI) and carbon nanodots (CNDTs) on an exfoliated graphite electrode (EG) is reported. The carbon nanodots were prepared by pyrolysis of oats. The nanocomposites (PPI and CNDTs) were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The proposed immunosensor was prepared on an exfoliated graphite electrode sequentially by drop coating CNDTs, the electrodeposition of G2-PPI (generation 2 poly (propylene imine) dendrimer), the immobilization of anti-CEA on the modified electrode for 80 min at 35 °C, and dropping of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to minimize non-specific binding sites. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize each stage of the fabrication of the immunosensor. The proposed immunosensor detected CEA within a concentration range of 0.005 to 300 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.00145 ng/mL by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The immunosensor displayed good stability and was also selective in the presence of some interference species such as ascorbic acid, glucose, alpha-fetoprotein, prostate-specific antigen and human immunoglobulin. Furthermore, the fabricated immunosensor was applied in the quantification of CEA in a human serum sample, indicating its potential for real sample analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number39
JournalBiosensors
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019

Keywords

  • Cancer
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen
  • Exfoliated graphite electrode
  • Immunosensor
  • Polypropylene imine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biotechnology
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Biochemistry

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