Amplifying thermal performance of solar flat plate collector by Al2O3/ Cu/MWCNT/SiO2 mono and hybrid nanofluid

T. Sathish, Jayant Giri, R. Saravanan, Mohd Ubaidullah, Sumarlin Shangdiar, Sioni Iikela, Thandiwe Sithole, Kassian T.T. Amesho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Flat plate collectors (FPCs) have garnered widespread usage in applications such as water heating, space heating, and various thermal systems, presenting an eco-friendly and sustainable approach to harnessing solar energy. However, the thermal performance of FPCs has been adversely affected by the improper selection of Heat Transfer Fluids (HTFs). The purpose of the work is to explore and demonstrate the potential advancements in solar flat plate collector (FPC) technology through the use of nanofluids to Enhance Energy Conversion, Explore Synergistic Effects, Contribute to Sustainable Energy Solutions and Address Technological Challenges. That is to optimize the thermal performance of FPCs by incorporating standalone and hybrid nanoparticles into the base fluid to augment their thermal properties. This approach explores new possibilities for synergistic effects and enhanced thermal properties, offering a novel contribution to the field of nanofluid research. The standalone and hybrid nanofluids encompass nanoparticles such as Al2O3, Cu, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), and SiO2 at a concentration of 0.5 wt%. In the preparation of hybrid nanofluids, equal volume fractions (25 % each) of Al2O3, Cu, MWCNT, and SiO2 nanoparticles were employed. The investigation includes the evaluation of thermal performance parameters, namely heat gain, heat loss coefficients, and thermal efficiency of FPCs, comparing these values with those of water. Hybrid nanofluids exhibit significantly improved thermal performance compared to both plain water and monodisperse nanofluids. Employing hybrid nanofluids yields results that indicate a peak outlet temperature of approximately 83.2 °C, a higher heat gains of 2385 W, a reduced heat loss coefficient of 25.5 W/m2K, and a peak thermal efficiency of 70.4 %. The use of hybrid nanofluids, as opposed to monodisperse nanofluids, offers superior thermal performance for flat plate collector-based solar heating systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number123692
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2024


  • Flat plate collector
  • Hybrid nanofluid
  • Nanoparticles
  • Solar energy utilization
  • Thermal efficiency
  • Thermal performance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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