Advances in the extraction, classification, modification, emerging and advanced applications of crystalline cellulose: A review

Ebuka Chizitere Emenike, Kingsley O. Iwuozor, Oluwaseyi D. Saliu, James Ramontja, Adewale George Adeniyi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


The distinctive characteristics and versatile applications of crystalline cellulose have garnered considerable interest in the 21st century, making it an emerging and promising material. This review highlights the current state of the art in crystalline cellulose research, with a particular focus on its emerging and advanced applications. The sources, extraction techniques, classification, and modification of crystalline cellulose were also discussed. It was observed that plant biomass is the most utilized precursor for crystalline cellulose synthesis. Findings also revealed that crystalline cellulose-based materials have significant potential for a wide range of applications, including 3D printing, photonics, catalysis, energy storage and generation, electronics, biomedicine, and pharmaceuticals, amongst others. However, there are also several challenges associated with the adoption of crystalline cellulose-based materials. These include issues related to cost, scalability, recycling, and waste management. This review highlights the need for continued investment in research and development to optimize the properties and manufacturing processes of these materials, as well as for education and outreach to increase awareness and promote their adoption. In summary, this review emphasizes how crystalline cellulose has the potential to tackle critical global issues, including resource depletion and climate change. It also presents prospects for future research and opportunities to adopt these materials.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100337
JournalCarbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • Bacterial cellulose
  • Cellulose nanocrystals
  • Material development
  • Microcrystalline cellulose
  • Sustainability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Biochemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry


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