Advances in controller design of pacemakers for pacing control: A comprehensive review

Rijhi Dey, Naiwrita Dey, Rudra Sankar Dhar, Ujjwal Mondal, Sudhakar Babu Thanikanti, Nnamdi Nwulu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


This paper provides an extensive literature review focusing on the modeling of artificial pacemakers and the various mechanisms employed for their pacing control. In this survey, we initially gone through the fundamental concept of artificial pacemakers. Subsequently, we expound on their modeling techniques. Additionally, we furnish a holistic overview of diverse control methodologies tailored for the continuous pace tracking and control of pacemaker signals. Our discussion extensively reviews and scrutinizes various control algorithms and deployment approaches. Moreover, we spotlight the application of the IMP-based Repetitive Control (RC) technique for ensuring uninterrupted pace tracking in pacemakers. Conclusively, we address the spectrum of research challenges inherent in controller design advancements, underscoring the journey towards achieving precise and accurate pace control in pacemakers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100930
JournalAnnual Reviews in Control
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • Controllers
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG)
  • Internal Model Principle (IMP)
  • Modeling
  • Pacemaker
  • Pacing control
  • Repetitive Controller (RC)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering


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