A wireless sensor network system for monitoring environmental factors affecting bulk grains storability

Moses O. Onibonoje, Nnamdi I. Nwulu, Pitshou N. Bokoro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Many nations and their people rely on agriculture for gross domestic product and food security. Globally, 2.4 billion tons of grains are produced per annum. Efficient monitoring and control of the environmental factors affecting quality of granaries is therefore important to both farmers and governments. This study designs and develops a distributed low-power, low-cost but effective wireless monitoring system for storing bulk grains. Furthermore, a mini storage facility for grains is also designed and constructed according to standard considerations for a pilot test. The study deployed the developed wireless monitoring system with efficient coverage in the constructed mini bin and monitored the environmental factors affecting the quality of the stored grains over a time period. The entire system was then evaluated. From the obtained results, the developed system achieved optimal trade-offs among coverage efficiency, reduced power consumption, reduced cost, real-time monitoring, and longer node life. The system is appropriate for small and medium scale farmers and marketers. Practical applications: The major application of the developed system resides in modular storage facilities for small scale farmers and middle level marketers of grains. The shortage or inaccessibility of small scale farmers and marketers of grains to resourceful storage bins has been eliminated. Furthermore, the system can possibly be deployed in existing large volume granary storage systems provided by governments in cities and major towns, for effective monitoring purpose. In most developing countries, many of the storage units provided by the governments for bulk grains are poorly managed. The relevance of this study is justified in its contribution to the provision of information on the selection of comparatively resourceful components for wireless monitoring systems. The network system analyses various components, topologies, and technologies based on specific criteria in order to identify the ones with comparative advantages. In summary, the developed wireless sensor network system helps to ensure food security and good economic returns of quality grains through well-monitored, controlled, and affordable storage facilities.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13256
JournalJournal of Food Process Engineering
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • General Chemical Engineering


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