A review of road models for vehicular control

D. J.N. Limebeer, E. Warren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Over the last 25 years a number of road models have been developed for use in a variety of vehicular control problems. These models are important, because they dictate the force-generating capabilities of the tyres, as well as constrain the movement of the vehicle itself. Early road models used two-dimensional (2D) ‘flat road’ representations, the advantages and deficiencies of which are well understood. Once it became apparent that three-dimensional effects can be important in limit-performance studies, ribbon-based three-dimensional (3D) road models were developed. The large lateral camber variations on highly-banked NASCAR tracks highlighted deficiencies in ribbon-based road representations that required correction. Upgraded models addressing these deficiencies were only developed recently. The purpose of this paper is to review and compare a number of road models–particularly those developed for use in racing studies. Comparative computed results are provided that hight some of the similarities and differences between these models.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1449-1475
Number of pages27
JournalVehicle System Dynamics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Kinematics
  • mathematical methods
  • mechanics
  • optimal control
  • simulation
  • track models

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Mechanical Engineering


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