A review of MXenes as emergent materials for dye removal from wastewater

Yasmeen Ibrahim, Mentallah Meslam, Kamel Eid, Belal Salah, Aboubakr M. Abdullah, Kenneth I. Ozoemena, Ahmed Elzatahry, Mohammed A. Sharaf, Mika Sillanpää

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

61 Citations (Scopus)


MXenes have emerged as a superlative contestant water purification technology due to their two-dimensional multilayered structures, multifarious chemical composition, photocatalytic properties, and activated metallic hydroxide sites. The explosion of publications on MXenes results in (≥4380 articles) with the title ‘’MXenes’’ according to the Web of Science (as of Nov. 16th, 2021), so it is essential to provide timely updates of this field with particular emphasis on MXenes in dye removal/degradation/adsorption that is rarely reported. This review emphasizes the rational design of MXenes-based composites, membranes, sorbents, photo-catalysts, and electrodes for dyes removal/adsorption/degradation supported by several mechanisms. The comparison between MXenes and other materials is also highlighted for the sustainable development of the water purification system along with the life cycle assessment of MXenes and their cytotoxicity and potential for large-scale applications. However, there are current challenges and prospects on MXenes that must be mitigated to endorse their practical utilization in sustainable future societies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number120083
JournalSeparation and Purification Technology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Dye degradation
  • MXene composites
  • MXene membrane
  • TiCT
  • Wastewater treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Filtration and Separation


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