A rapid microwave-assisted acid extraction method based on the use of diluted HNO3-H2O2 followed by ICP-MS analysis for simultaneous determination of trace elements in coal samples

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16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Before coal processing such as pyrolysis, liquefaction, gasification and combustion, it is very crucial to monitor the trace element concentration levels as that determines the coal quality. Therefore, the current study describes the development of microwave-assisted acid extraction (MW-AAE) method for extraction of 15 trace elements in coal samples prior to their determination using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Diluted HNO3-H2O2 was used in order to reduce reagents amount used, eliminate matrix interferences caused by concentrated acids and to decrease waste produced in analytical laboratories. The optimisation of the proposed extraction method was carried out by using a full factorial design (24) involving four factors; that is, temperature, extraction time, HNO3 and H2O2 concentrations. The optimum conditions for the MW-AAE procedure were found to be 200°C, 5 min, 5 mol L−1 and 2 mol L−1 for temperature, extraction time, HNO3 and H2O2 concentrations, respectively. Under optimum conditions, the accuracy of the MW-AAE method was examined by analysing three coal certified reference materials (SARM 18, 19 and 20) and recoveries of 80–115% were achieved for V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Sr, Zr, Cs, Ba, Pb and U, except for Ti (10–25%) and Hf (27–70%). In addition, the precision of the proposed method, expressed in terms of relative standard deviation (SD) (n = 15), was within the accepted range (≤3.5%). The method detection limits of 0.001–0.57 µg g−1 for all trace elements under the investigation were similar to the literature reported work, except for Ti (4.00 µg g−1).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)453-465
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry
Volume95
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Apr 2015

Keywords

  • diluted HNO-HO
  • inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry
  • microwave-assisted acid extraction
  • trace elements

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Soil Science
  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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