A mini-review on wastewater treatment through bioremediation towards enhanced field applications of the technology

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2 Citations (Scopus)


This study reviewed the use of microorganisms for bioremediation of wastewater. The aim was to ensure enhanced transfer of findings on bioremediation experiments at laboratory level for field applications, which is currently limited. Using empirical studies and specified microbes, bioremediation was shown to clear or reduce concentrations of many pollutants found in both industrial and municipal effluents with high efficacy. Findings established that bioremediation efficacy differs based on the microbes used, the characteristics of the targeted wastewater for cleansing and the physicochemical and biological characteristics of the polluted environs. It was also established that bioremediation is sometimes limited in refractory contaminant remediation due to microbe incompatibility with pollutant resulting to enzyme inhibition, generation of toxic substances and slow microbial metabolism capacity, which could prolong bioremediation processes and reduce the resultant decontamination efficacy. To overcome these challenges, this review recommended the uptake of advancements such as bio-stimulation and bioaugmentation for bettered biodegradation of contaminants. Additionally, the use of genetically engineered approaches to improve the innate characteristics of bioremediators towards recalcitrant pollutants was found to improve effectiveness. The review also suggested the use of consortiums and multiple bioremediation approaches to improve bioremediation outcomes in future. Bioremediation therefore, has high potential in cleansing wastewater pollutants and biotechnological advances could further improve its field application outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)403-431
Number of pages29
JournalAIMS Environmental Science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • biodegradation
  • biotechnology
  • consortiums
  • effluent
  • microorganisms
  • pollution
  • wastewater treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Environmental Science


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