A comprehensive review of heavy metals (Pb2+, Cd2+, Ni2+) removal from wastewater using low-cost adsorbents and possible revalorisation of spent adsorbents in blood fingerprint application

Y. B. Nthwane, B. G. Fouda-Mbanga, M. Thwala, K. Pillay

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

An increasing amount of water pollution is being caused by an increase in industrial activity. Recently, a wide range of methods, including extraction, chemical coagulation, membrane separation, chemical precipitation, adsorption, and ion exchange, have been used to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions. The adsorption technique is believed to be the most highly effective method for eliminating heavy metals from wastewater among all of them. However, it generates secondary waste that can pose a risk to the environment. Agricultural waste has potential to be collected and converted into carbon nanomaterials, then coated with metal oxides for the removal of Pb2+, Cd2+, and Ni2+ ions and then the reuse of heavy metal spent adsorbents in blood fingerprint detection (BFP) can be studied. This review highlights the eco-friendly nature and abundant availability of these materials while advocating for their integration into mainstream wastewater treatment practices. It explores the prospect of revalorizing spent adsorbents in blood fingerprint applications, demonstrating a dual-purpose utilisation that bridges environmental remediation with advancements forensic sciences. Different method of removal of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+, removal technique as well as other reuse applications of spent adsorbents are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEnvironmental Technology (United Kingdom)
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024

Keywords

  • Blood fingerprint detection
  • pollution
  • secondary waste
  • spent adsorbent

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal

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