940 nm diode laser induced differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells to temporomandibular joint disc cells

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Background: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) refers to a group of disorders that affect temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and its associated muscles with very limited treatment options. Stem cell research is emerging as one of the promising fields in the treatment of degenerative diseases. The ability of human adipose derived stem cells to differentiate into many cell types is driving special interest in several disease management strategies. Photobiomodulation has enhanced the role of these stem cells through their ability to promote cell proliferation and differentiation. Hence, this study examined the differentiation potential of human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) into fibroblasts and chondrocytes using a 940 nm diode laser for possible TMD therapy. Materials and methods: ADSCs were cultured at different seeding densities and for different time intervals. After irradiation at 24, 48, 72 h, 1, 2 and 3 weeks, ADSC viability and morphological changes were assessed in groups with and without basic fibroblast growth factor. Additionally, the level of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the cells was also recorded. The differentiated fibroblasts and chondrocytes were characterized with flow cytometry and immunofluorescence techniques, at 1- and 2-weeks post-irradiation. Results: Increased ATP proliferation and cell viability above 90% were observed in all post-irradiation experimental groups. Post irradiation results from flow cytometry and immunofluorescence at 1- and 2‐weeks confirmed the expression of chondrogenic and fibroblastic cell surface markers. Conclusion: This study describes stimulatory techniques utilized to differentiate ADSCs into fibroblastic and chondrogenic phenotypes using diode lasers at 940 nm. The study proposes a new treatment model for patients with degenerative disc diseases of the TMJ. The study will offer new possibilities in tissue engineering and TMJ disc management through photobiomodulation of ADSCs using a 940 nm diode laser.

Original languageEnglish
Article number23
JournalBMC Biotechnology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Basic fibroblast growth factor
  • Chondrocytes
  • Fibroblasts
  • Photobiomodulation
  • Temporomandibular disorder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology


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